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The role of Leptin in the brain for catecholamine’s (TH) neurons, Serotonin (5HT) neurons and orexin neurons

The role of Leptin in the brain for catecholamine’s (TH) neurons, Serotonin (5HT) neurons and orexin neurons

please write a Literature review on how leptin work on the (TH) neurons, Serotonin (5HT) neurons and orexin neurons please follow the outline I gave you please make sure that you use original article and new references form 2010-2016 I will upload some articles and outline to help you, Topic: The role of Leptin in the brain for catecholamines (TH) neurons, Serotonin (5HT) neurons and orexin neurons Outline Literature review 1 1- The important of Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the brain. a- Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is an enzyme involved in catecholamines biosynthesis in the brain. The activation and phosphorylation of the TH enzyme is dependent on a variety of protein kinases, such as PKC in short term mechanisms. b- The distribution of Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) neurons in the brain ( PVN, PAG, DR, NTS and RVLM) 2- The important of Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) neuron in the paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus (PVN): a. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) neurons involves in the regulation of Cardiovascular function b. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) neurons involves in the regulation of food intake c. The influence of leptin on Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) neuron in the paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus (PVN) 3- The important of Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) neuron in the periaqueductal gray (PAG) a. In the regulation of Cardiovascular function b. In the regulation of food intake c. The influence of leptin on Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) neuron in the periaqueductal gray (PAG) 4- The important of Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) neuron in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) a- The dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) is located on the midline of the brainstem and is part of the raphe nucleus b- The influence of leptin on Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) neuron in dorsal raphe nucleus 5- The important of neuron that are contained Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the nucleus of the solitary trac (NTS) a. In the regulation of Cardiovascular function b. In the regulation of food intake c. The influence of leptin on Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) neuron in the nucleus of the solitary trac (NTS) 6- The important of neuron that are contained Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla (RVLM) a. In the regulation of Cardiovascular function b. In the regulation of food intake c. The influence of leptin on Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) neuron in the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla (RVLM) Literature review 2 7- The important of Serotonin (5HT) neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus 8- The important of Serotonin (5HT) neurons in the Rostral Ventromedial medulla (RVM) 9- The important of Serotonin (5HT) neurons in the raphe pallidus nucleus (RPa) 10- The influence of leptin on(5HT) neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus. 11- The influence of leptin on(5HT) neurons in the Rostral Ventromedial medulla (RVM) 12- The influence of leptin on(5HT) neurons in the raphe pallidus nucleus (RPa) Literature review 3 The important of orexin neuron in Lateral Hypothalmic Area and The influence of leptin on orexin neuron The Lateral Hypothalmic Area contains thousands of orexin neurons, however, orexin neurons also innervate nearly the entire CNS (Anabolic Neuropeptides paper). Orexin consists of 130 amino acids in rodents. Studies have shown that central administration of leptin decreases hypothalamic orexin A levels, implying that leptin may inhibit orexin activity in LHA. Central administration of orexin A raises the metabolic rate and causes hyperthermia. Orexin is divided into orexin A and orexin B, orexin A is a peptide that consists of 33 amino acid and it is identical in human and rat. However, orexin B is a peptide that consists of a 28-amino acid peptide and there is different between human and rat by two amino acid (Sakurai et al., 1998). It has been known that orexin is implicated in energy homeostasis (Sakurai et al., 1998). Previous studies showed that orexin neurons contained Ob-Rb (What’s the significance of this?) (Haˆkansson et al., 1998), therefore, leptin was believed to directly influence the expression of orexin in the LH. However, new findings suggest that orexin peptides are separate from Ob-Rb expressing neurons in the LH, thus leptin likely modulates orexin neurons in LH via indirect methods (Leinninger et al., 2009, Funato et al., 2009, Leinninger et al., 2011; Louis et al., 2010).

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